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Previous Grant Recipients

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2014 Impact Award

Three of the nation’s largest lung cancer advocacy organizations, the American Lung Association, Free to Breathe, and Uniting Against Lung Cancer, worked together in an unprecedented collaboration to fund research to improve treatment for lung cancer patients.


Targeting p53 Mutation

Dr. Peter Kaiser, PhD - University of California, Irvine

"This funding from Free to Breathe, the American Lung Association and Uniting Against Lung Cancer will allow us to explore novel lung cancer therapeutics to help patients suffering from this terrible disease." learn more >


Young Investigator Grants

Thank you to the incredible Free to Breathe donors, fundraisers and supporters who have funded over $4 million in lung cancer research since 2005. This year, the Free to Breathe community supports these researchers as part of the Young Investigator Research Grant program.


Mohamed Abazeed, MD, PhDNew Targeted Therapies for Squamous Cell Lung Cancer

Mohamed Abazeed, MD, PhD - Cleveland Clinic Foundation

"I am constantly reminded of the courage, resilience and spirit of my patients. They are a reminder of the urgency to achieve much more." learn more >

Louisiana Hope Research Grant, made possible by Free to Breathe


Collin Blakely, MD, PhDImproving an Important Targeted Therapy

Collin Blakely, MD, PhD - University of California San Francisco

"I see firsthand the toll metastatic lung cancer takes on patients and families. My hope is this research will ultimately extend patients' lives significantly." learn more >

Made possible by Free to Breathe and Uniting Against Lung Cancer


Dingcheng Gao, PhDStopping Tumors From Getting Fuel to Grow

Dingcheng Gao, PhD - Weill Medical College of Cornell University

"Thanks to everyone at Free to Breathe for making great efforts to fundraise for outstanding projects in lung cancer research." learn more >

Roseann Safar Lung Cancer Research Grant, made possible by Free to Breathe


John Poirier, PhDOvercoming Small Cell Lung Cancer Drug Resistance

John Poirier, PhD - Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center

"Patients and families touched by lung cancer look to the scientific community for hope. We have a responsibility to bring them more cures." learn more >

Louisiana Hope Research Grant, made possible by Free to Breathe


Kavitha Yaddanapudi, PhDA Lung Cancer Vaccine to Prevent Relapse

Kavitha Yaddanapudi, PhD - University of Louisville

"Every possible therapy that can provide relief to lung cancer patients or improve their quality of life should be pursued." learn more >

Lung Cancer Initiative of North Carolina grant, made possible by Free to Breathe


Helena Yu, MDA New Way to Prevent Drug Resistance

Helena Yu, MD - Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center

"I'm working to make the best treatments we have for EGFR-positive lung cancer even more effective, leading to improved patient survival." learn more >

Andrews Family Research Grant, made possible by Free to Breathe



Our thanks to Genentech and Novartis for their support of the 2014 Young Investigator Research Grants.

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2013 Impact Award

The Impact Award is a $200,000 scientific grant jointly funded by Free to Breathe and Uniting Against Lung Cancer (UALC). The largest scientific grant offered by both Free to Breathe and UALC, the Impact Award is expected to produce significant improvement for lung cancer patients within the next five years.

Adi Gazdar, MD
University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center

Dr. Gazdar's and his team at University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center are examining whether certain patients can benefit from targeted therapy drugs known as Aurora-kinase inhibitors. Ultimately, this research has the potential to reduce the time it takes for Aurora-kinase inhibitors to benefit patients through clinical trials.


2013 Young Investigator Research Grants

The Young Investigator Research Grant competition was developed to support lung cancer researchers early in their careers and ignite their interest in the field. Grant recipients receive $100,000 total distributed over two years.

Lauren Averett Byers, MDLauren Averett Byers, MD
Assistant Professor, M.D. Anderson Cancer Center

Small cell lung cancer (SCLC) is an aggressive form of lung cancer that hasn’t seen significant changes to standard-of-care treatments in more than 20 years. With low SCLC survival rates, there’s an urgent, unmet need for new treatment options. In her previous research, Dr. Byers discovered that blocking a protein called PARP can help improve the effectiveness of chemotherapy for SCLC. But she has also found that tumors can learn how to adapt to PARP-blocking drugs. With this grant, Dr. Byers will examine how this resistance develops, and she’ll test new treatments that may help to overcome resistance to PARP-blocking drugs. This grant is made possible by the Lung Cancer Initiative of North Carolina.


Raul Catena, PhDRaul Catena, PhD
Post-Doctoral Associate, Weill Medical College of Cornell University

Dr. Catena’s research examines one of the ways lung tumors recruit normal cells to support their growth and spread to other organs. Through previous work, Dr. Catena has discovered that certain cells, called neutrophils, can be co-opted by tumors in order to start a process that encourages the growth of new blood vessels. These blood vessels provide new sources of oxygen and nutrients to fuel tumor growth. With Free to Breathe support, Dr. Catena will continue examining this process, including ways to block it, with the goal of identifying new therapies for patients.


Adam S. Crystal, MD, PhDAdam S. Crystal, MD, PhD
Clinical Fellow, Massachusetts General Hospital Cancer Center

The lung cancer drug crizotinib has been a huge success story among targeted therapies, proven effective for up to 60% of patients who harbor a large mutation, called a translocation, in the ALK gene. However, over time, most tumors develop resistance to crizotinib and become much more difficult to treat. By investigating new drugs and methods that could overcome drug resistance, Dr. Crystal is determined to advance the treatment of lung cancer patients, in particular those with cancers driven by ALK. This grant is made possible by Free to Breathe and Uniting Against Lung Cancer.


Alexander Drilon, MDAlexander Drilon, MD
Medical Oncology Fellow, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center

Dr. Drilon’s phase II clinical trial is the first of its kind to determine whether certain patients with advanced NSCLC will benefit from a promising new drug, called BMS-93655. This drug is an immune system booster; instead of attacking tumors directly, it helps the body’s own immune system find and kill cancer cells. Because this drug doesn’t work for all patients, Dr. Drilon’s research will attempt to determine whether biomarkers can be used to predict who might benefit from this treatment. Advanced NSCLC is currently an incurable disease, so this research has the potential to open promising new treatment opportunities for those who desperately need them. This grant is made possible by Free to Breathe and A Breath of Hope Lung Foundation.


Yan Lu, PhDYan Lu, PhD
Assistant Professor, Medical College of Wisconsin

Scientists are learning that lung cancer can be caused not only by environmental hazards a person has been exposed to, but also by genetics. However, these roles aren’t always separate, because some people with a smoking history seem to be more likely to develop lung cancer than others with a similar history. Dr. Lu has found evidence that variations in a gene called Dock9 may play a role in lung cancer risk. Free to Breathe support will allow Dr. Lu to further examine how Dock9 affects cancer formation and investigate ways it may eventually be targeted with therapy. This grant is made possible through the Louisiana Hope Research Grant provided by Free to Breathe.


Narendra Wajapeyee, PhDNarendra Wajapeyee, PhD
Assistant Professor, Yale University School of Medicine

This research project seeks to build understanding of a genetic problem that drives lung cancer growth in approximately 50% of lung cancer patients. When the gene p53 is mutated, part of the system that controls cell growth and division becomes broken, allowing cells to grow and divide uncontrollably. Dr. Wajapeyee is working on ways to fix this system by using other genes to control cell growth, which could lead to new, effective treatments for patients whose tumors have a p53 mutation. This grant is made possible by Free to Breathe and Uniting Against Lung Cancer.

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2012 Young Investigator Research Grants

Trever Bivona, MD PhD
Assistant Professor, University of California, San Francisco

Approximately 20% of non-small cell lung cancers have mutations in a gene called EGFR (epidermal growth factor receptor). While a drug called erlotinib (Tarceva®) appears especially effective in controlling these tumors, most tumors become resistant to the effects of the drug over time. These patients' drug resistance can be promoted by the activation of a gene called AXL, so Dr. Bivona's research seeks to understand how AXL promotes erlotinib resistance. This project could lead to clinical trials that determine whether drugs that block AXL can improve erlotinib¹s effectiveness, helping patients on the drug live longer. This grant is made possible by A Breath of Hope Lung Foundation.


Khaled Hassan, MD, MS
Clinical Lecturer, University of Michigan

During normal fetal development, certain cells participate in the Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transition (EMT), a process in which such cells undergo changes that allow them to transition to a new cell type and function, and migrate to new locations. Normally, this transition is “turned off” after fetal development. However, in some cancerous cells, the EMT pathway can get “turned back on,” allowing these cells to invade normal tissues, overcome common signals telling the cells when they should die, and resist standard anti-tumor therapy. Dr. Hassan’s research aims to determine whether blocking a specific protein — the Notch protein — stops the activation of EMT in lung cancer cells. If blocking Notch proves effective, Dr. Hassan will investigate whether a Notch-targeting drug can make lung cancer cells more responsive to chemotherapy.


Shadia Jalal, MD
Assistant Professor, Indiana University School of Medicine

Dr. Jalal is examining the role of RAD51, a protein important to DNA repair, in metastasis, or spread, of lung cancer. If we can fully understand how RAD51 affects metastasis, we can find new ways to target the protein, with the ultimate goal of improving outcomes for people with metastatic lung cancer.


Naveen Kommajosyula, PhD
Research Fellow, Dana-Farber Cancer Institute

Many chemotherapy treatments work by attacking the DNA of cancer cells. Cancer cells are often resistant to these treatments because they have an overactive ability to repair this DNA damage. As a result, the cancer cells don’t die. One protein, poly ADP ribose polymerase (PARP), seems to be particularly vital to this DNA repair process. If this protein is blocked by drugs (called PARP inhibitors), the cancer cell can’t repair itself and will die. Dr. Kommajosyula’s research aims to understand how to block PARP in lung cancers and test new drugs that could be used in combination with PARP inhibitors in order to provide more effective treatment options for lung cancer patients. This grant is made possible by Free to Breathe and Uniting Against Lung Cancer.


Don Nguyen, PhD
Assistant Professor, Yale School of Medicine and Yale Cancer Center

Some adenocarcinoma patients treated with chemotherapy temporarily experience a decrease in their tumors, or no additional growth. But usually, even after a good response, lung tumors eventually start growing again and spread to other vital organs. This process, termed cancer metastasis, is the major cause of death in lung cancer patients. Some researchers believe this is due to the spread of cancer “stem cells” that are resistant to treatment. Dr. Nguyen’s research aims to identify the molecules marking these cancer stem cells so that they can be easily identified. Once identified, monitoring these cells can help determine the timing of cancer progression, potentially leading to cheaper, safer, and more accurate ways to assess the effectiveness of how a therapy is working for an individual patient over time. This grant is made possible through the Louisiana Hope Research Grant provided by Free to Breathe.


Kerstin Sinkevicius, PhD
Postdoctoral Fellow, Harvard Medical School

The majority of lung cancer patients are currently diagnosed at stage IV, when their cancer has already metastasized. Dr. Sinkevicius’ research seeks to determine if a specific protein, TrkB, plays a role in moving lung cancer cells into new tissues. If TrkB does play a role in the spread of cancer cells, this project will determine how best to block its effects, which could ultimately lead to the development of new lung cancer therapies that can prevent lung cancer metastasis.


Tokihiro Yamamoto, PhD
Instructor Stanford University School of Medicine

Radiation is a mainstay in the lung cancer treatment arsenal. However, it can be challenging to avoid harming lung tissues surrounding the tumor. Surrounding lung tissues may be healthy, or they may be unhealthy due to cancer, or other lung conditions. If doctors can better understand which tissues are truly healthy vs. unhealthy, the geometry of the radiation beam can be planned to specifically avoid harming the healthy tissue. This research project aims to develop, optimize and validate a new method for imaging the healthy and unhealthy portions of the lung using four-dimensional computed tomography (4D CT). Dr. Yamamoto will compare 4D CT results of 30 lung cancer patients with another currently accepted, but less available scan method to determine whether 4D CT scans can be used to accurately image healthy vs. unhealthy portions of the lung.


Rinat Zaynagetdinov, MD, PhD
Postdoctoral Fellow, Vanderbilt University

Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a condition in which the immune system responds to an outside irritant, causing inflammation in the airway. This inflammation is an unnatural state for the lungs to continue to experience, and leads to a higher risk of lung cancer for people with COPD. Dr. Zaynagetdinov’s research seeks to understand how certain immune system cells present in inflammation, myeloid cells, promote lung cancer. This project is also investigating how a specific protein complex, NF-kB, affects the formation of those immune cells. Ultimately, this research could lead to new methods for preventing lung cancer, particularly in people with COPD. This grant is made possible by the Lung Cancer Initiative of North Carolina.


2012 Lung Cancer Nursing Research Grant


Doris Howell, RN, PhD
RBC Chair, Oncology Nursing Education and Research and Scientist, Psychosocial Oncology and Palliative Care at Princess Margaret Hospital (University Health Network), Toronto, Ontario

Breathlessness, or shortness of breath, is one of the most common and most distressing symptoms for lung cancer patients and can profoundly affect their daily lives. With this grant, Dr. Howell will conduct a clinical trial to study the impact of teaching patients techniques and strategies for managing breathlessness themselves. By successfully controlling their own breathlessness, patients could see relief from symptoms more quickly and improve their quality of life. This grant is made possible by Free to Breathe and the Oncology Nursing Society Foundation.

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2011 Young Investigator Research Grants


Peter Hammerman, MD, PhD
Clinical Fellow, Dana Farber Cancer Institute

Squamous cell lung cancer makes up about 25% of lung cancer cases, and previous studies have shown that changes in two genes, DDR2 and FGFR1, occur in about 20-25% of these tumors. Dr. Hammerman hopes to establish whether these genetic changes are important in the development of squamous lung cancer, and if so, whether drugs targeted to these genes will lead to tumor shrinkage.  Eventually, Dr. Hammerman hopes to make DDR2 and FGFR1 inhibitors available in clinical trials.


Puneeth Iyengar, MD, PhD
Assistant Professor, UT Southwestern Medical Center

During cancer development, our bodies are in a constant state of inflammation that may drive tumor progression and inherent resistance to one of the main-stays in lung cancer treatment: radiation therapy. Dr. Iyengar is interested in identifying how proteins involved in the inflammatory process help lung cancer cells survive and how blocking the action of these proteins may increase the effectiveness of radiation therapy.  It is hoped that this knowledge will ultimately improve survival for lung cancer patients.


James Kim, MD, PhD
Postdoctoral Scholar, Stanford University

K-ras is a protein that is frequently mutated in lung cancers. In tumors, mutant K-ras can lead to the activation of the Hedgehog (Hh) pathway in the surrounding non-cancerous cells (also called stroma). The Hh pathway may be involved in causing stromal cells to promote the growth of cancer cells. This project seeks to understand the role of the Hh pathway in tumor growth, identify new factors that may be important for cancer growth, and test drug combinations that attack both the cancer cells and the surrounding stromal cells. The ultimate goal of Dr. Kim’s research is to identify new targeted treatments for tumors with an activated K-ras mutation.


Celine Mascaux, MD, PhD
Postdoctoral Research Fellow, University of Colorado-Denver

By further understanding the early steps of lung cancer development, Dr. Mascaux hopes to identify biomarkers for early detection and potentially find new targets for lung cancer prevention and treatment. In this international multicenter study, Dr. Mascaux will analyze selected biomarkers and demonstrate whether they can be used for early detection of lung cancer.  Her ultimate aim is to develop a cost-effective, non-invasive screening test for lung cancer that could be made widely available. Dr. Mascaux's research is supported by Free to Breathe through the Louisiana Hope Research Grant.


Claire Simpson, PhD
Visiting Fellow, National Human Genome Research Institute, National Institutes of Health

The risk of developing lung cancer differs between individuals depending in part upon the genes they carry and their exposure to cancer-causing chemicals and agents. Genetic variation of a region on chromosome 6 appears to result in a greater risk of developing lung cancer regardless of a person’s smoking history. By determining the sequence of DNA in the region, Dr. Simpson may be able to find the specific mutations responsible for this increased risk.  In addition, Dr. Simpson will continue to look for genes in other regions of the genome that may also affect lung cancer risk. Identification of gene markers indicating higher risk of lung cancer may ultimately improve early detection of the disease. Dr. Simpson's research is supported by the Lung Cancer Initiative of North Carolina.


Sunil Singhal, MD
Assistant Professor, University of Pennsylvania

Cancer cells are able to continue to grow and divide, in part, because they suppress the normal action of immune cells and escape recognition as “enemies” by the immune system. Researchers have been searching for ways to make a person’s own immune system recognize cancer cells and subsequently eliminate them. Dr. Singhal’s goal is to discover and characterize the network of factors created by human lung tumors that suppress recognition by the immune system.  Ultimately, Dr. Singhal hopes this research will lead to methods to target these immune-suppressing factors and make current therapies more effective.

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2010 Young Investigator Research Grants


Stephen Malkoski, M.D., PhD
Assistant Professor, University of Colorado, Denver

During tumor development, cancer cells interact with surrounding non-cancerous cells that can support or inhibit tumor growth. TGFß is a protein that regulates normal lung growth. Dr. Malkoski is examining whether defects in TGFß in surrounding lung tissue create an environment that supports lung cancer growth. This research may eventually provide opportunities to identify new lung cancer therapies that target the tumor environment.


Heidi Hamann, PhD
Assistant Professor, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center

Lung cancer patients may feel shame and guilt related to their disease due to the stigma of lung cancer’s association with smoking. This stigma can negatively affect their care and treatment. Dr. Hamann is working to develop a way to measure lung cancer stigma, examine differences between what men and women experience, and study how stigma affects patients’ communications with their doctors. Learning more about lung cancer stigma will allow clinicians to directly address and reduce this stigma and eventually improve treatment and care for lung cancer patients. This grant is supported by the Lung Cancer Initiative of North Carolina and Free to Breathe.


Mark Onaitis, MD
Assistant Professor, Duke University Medical Center

Dr. Onaitis is seeking to better understand the complexity of lung cancer tumors by characterizing tumor-initiating cells and how they respond to certain molecular signals. He will investigate how the type and location of a tumor-initiating cell contributes to the aggressiveness of the cancer. A better understanding of the different types of cells within a tumor and how those cells are affected by cell signals could help develop more effective targeted therapies. This grant is supported by the Lung Cancer Initiative of North Carolina and LUNGevity Foundation.


May-Lin Wilgus, MD
Fellow, Columbia University

A particular type of lung cancer, bronchioloalveolar carcinoma (BAC), is generally not aggressive. However, it can transform into adenocarcinoma, a more aggressive form of cancer. Dr. Wilgus is seeking to determine whether abnormalities in a specific chromosome are associated with progression of BAC to adenocarcinoma. This research has the potential to help identify which patients are likely to experience recurrence of cancer after surgery, so they can be provided with additional treatment. This grant is supported by Free to Breathe and LUNGevity Foundation.


Sai Yendamuri, M.D.
Attending Surgeon, Roswell Park Cancer Institute, Assistant Professor, State University of New York at Buffalo

Although early stage lung cancer is often curable with surgery, up to 30% to 40% of these cancers will recur. Predicting which patients have a high risk of recurrence would allow more aggressive treatment in the beginning, potentially curing more people. Dr. Yendamuri’s research aims to understand whether looking at a set of genetic components, micro RNAs, can predict who will experience disease recurrence, and whether these micro RNAs can be used to detect recurrence earlier than is now possible. This grant is supported by Free to Breathe and LUNGevity Foundation.


2010 Lung Cancer Nursing Research Grant
 

Donna McCarthy Beckett, PhD, RN
Professor, Associate Dean for Research, Ohio State University College of Nursing

Lung cancer patients often experience fatigue and depression. In this pre-clinical study, Dr. McCarthy Beckett aims to better understand the basic biology behind these symptoms. She will also examine how effectively anti-inflammatory and anti-depression medications treat these symptoms, with the hope of improving overall quality of life for lung cancer patients. This grant is supported by Free to Breathe and Oncology Nursing Society Foundation.

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2009 Career Development Award


I-Ching Wang, PhD
Cincinnati Children's Hospital Medical Center

Dr. Wang seeks to understand how FoxM1, a protein that helps regulate cell growth in normal cells, may also contribute to uncontrolled growth in cancerous cells. Although FoxM1 is known to play a role in the development of lung cancer, the exact mechanisms by which it is acting are not yet defined. Dr. Wang’s research seeks to define FoxM1’s actions in lung cancer initiation, ultimately to help facilitate development of novel therapies directed towards the protein.


2009 Research Grants


Prasad Adusumilli, MD
Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center

Dr. Adusumilli aims to improve treatment for patients with Visceral Pleural Invasion, a condition that affects one in four early stage lung cancer patients, where cancer cells spread to the membrane covering the lungs’ surface. The goal of his research is to develop a novel lung cancer treatment by genetically modifying patients’ own immune cells (T cells) to eliminate their tumor cells. This grant is supported by Free to Breathe and LUNGevity Foundation.


Lee Goodglick, PhD
University of California, Los Angeles

Dr. Goodglick will focus on how estrogen may drive some lung tumors to grow and become more deadly. Aromatase-inhibitor drugs, which have long been used to treat breast cancer by decreasing estrogen levels in patients, will be studied in pre-clinical models to determine their effectiveness in treating lung cancer. Additional research will use new technologies to study lung tumor tissues to determine other steps in the estrogen stimulation pathway that affect tumor progression. This grant is supported by Free to Breathe and LUNGevity Foundation.


2009 Lung Cancer Survivorship Research Grant


Janette Vardy, MD, PhD
University of Sydney in Sydney, Australia

Dr. Vardy will determine if a physical activity program will help improve fatigue, quality of life, and overall physical function for patients with advanced-stage lung cancer. This study has the potential to change standard of care for lung cancer patients by adding physical activity as a non-toxic, inexpensive treatment option, which could improve patients’ quality of life. This grant is supported by the National Lung Cancer Partnership and the LIVESTRONG Foundation.


2008 Career Development Award


Adam Marcus, PhD
Winship Cancer Institute at Emory University

Dr. Marcus is seeking to understand how lung cancer cells are able to invade surrounding tissues.


2008 Research Grants


Hildegard Schuller, DVM, PhD
University of Tennessee

Dr. Schuller's research will evaluate the relationship between estrogen and the nicotine-derived carcinogen, NNK, in lung tumor foundation. This grant is supported by Free to Breathe and LUNGevity Foundation.


Albert Baldwin, PhD
Lineberger Cancer Center at the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill

Dr. Baldwin is investigating genetic and molecular changes that can transform normal cells into cancer cells. This grant is supported by Free to Breathe and LUNGevity Foundation.


2008 Fellowship Award/Young Investigators Award


Ilse Valencia
Hamon Center for Therapeutic Oncology Research, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center

Dr. Valencia is seeking to understand how some non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) tumors become resistant to drugs like erlotinib (Tarceva) that target the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR). This grant is supported by Free to Breathe and the International Association for the Study of Lung Cancer (IASLC).


2008 Lung Cancer Nursing Research Grant


Grace Dean, PhD, RN and Suzanne Dickerson, DNS
State University of New York - University at Buffalo School of Nursing

Drs. Dean and Dickerson seek to better understand the sleep disturbances lung cancer patients experience, in order to improve sleep and overall quality of life for lung cancer patients during their treatment and beyond. This grant is supported by Free to Breathe and the Oncology Nursing Society Foundation.


2007 Career Development Award


Michele Cote, PhD
Karmanos Cancer Institute at Wayne State University

Dr. Cote is pursuing research investigating the role of estrogen-related tumor characteristics in predicting survival after a lung cancer diagnosis, and in particular, the relationship between estrogen expression and survival in individuals who get lung cancer before they are 50 years old. This grant is supported by Free to Breathe and the LUNGevity Foundation.


2007 Research Grant


Richard Pietras, PhD, MD
UCLA

Dr. Pietras is studying how estrogen, estrogen receptors, and other molecules that interact with the estrogen receptor complex work together to stimulate lung tumor growth.


2005 Career Development Award


Hayley McDaid, PhD
Albert Einstein College of Medicine of Yeshiva University

Dr. McDaid investigated how lung cancer cells respond to new classes of drugs that specifically target the dysfunctional growth of cancer cells, and how the cells become resistant to the effects of these drugs. Read an article about Dr. McDaid's research funded by this grant. This grant is supported by Free to Breathe and the Lung Cancer Online Foundation.


2005 Research Grant


Christoph Plass, PhD
The Ohio State University

Dr. Plass investigated how lung tumor tissues from males and females differ in the way that DNA is modified within the cancerous cells. His research focuses on the involvement of estrogen in the modification of DNA, and whether these modifications may lead to the numerous sex differences seen in lung cancer.

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